Zo is quick to respond to changes in fluid status caused by exertion, heat, increased hydration or diuretics. In a report from Frantz (2002) Zo was measured in subjects before and after breakfast, before and after lunch, before dinner and at bedtime. Subjects engaged in extreme activity over the course of four days. Measurements indicated that the average Zo pre activity was 22 ohms and Zo post activity (three hours later) had increased to an average of 28 ohms. After hydration and a meal, Zo decreased by two ohms in 1.5 hours. The investigator found that the best time of day to obtain an overall indication of Zo was in the morning upon rising.

In the morning, before breakfast, is the best time for home monitoring patients to measure Zo.


In Another Study

(2004), subjects wearing rubber hazmat suits, during weapons of mass destruction drill, had their Zo measured before and after the exercise. Every subject experienced an increase in Zo, which indicated a trend toward dehydration. Some subjects experienced a change in Zo by as much as 58% (Zo pre exercise 19.4 ohms to 30.7 ohms) in only one hour.

These studies indicate that not only is Zo a sensitive measure of fluid status, but that the percent change from baseline is an indication of the degree of severity related to the change in status.

Patient Benefits
Physician Benefits
  • Decreased emergency room visits and rehospitalizations
  • Feeling of security related to objective values placed on fluid measurement
  • Improvement in functional capabilities
  • High degree of satisfaction in medical care
  • Higher level of awareness and understanding of disease process and treatment
  • Promotes active participation in self-care
  • Improved patient management
  • More efficient use of time and resources
  • Focused objective reporting of clinical data
  • Documentation/data to support diagnostic studies/decrease invasive studies

Indications for Use
The ZOE® monitor is FDA approved for monitoring of:

  • Patients living with fluid management problems
  • Patients taking diuretic medication
  • Patients living with heart failure
  • Patients living with End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Patients recovering from a coronary artery disease related event
  • Patients suffering from recurrent dehydration


  • Patients with allergies to electrode hydrogel
  • Patients with skin sensitivities to electrode hydrogel
  • Patients with skin breakdown in areas where electrode placement is required

This device is intended for use by qualified health care practitioners, under the direction of a physician, for the noninvasive monitoring and management of patients with fluid management problems in a variety of medically accepted clinical applications.





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