Abstract - Crit Care Clin 1996 Oct;12(4):939-69
Oxygen transport and oxygen metabolism in shock and critical illness. Invasive and noninvasive monitoring of circulatory dysfunction and shock.
Shoemaker WC Department of Anesthesiology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA.
The common underlying physiologic problem in shock is low flow from hypovolemia or maldistributed microcirculatory flow from uneven vasoconstriction, leading to inadequate tissue perfusion (hypoxia), often in the face of increased metabolic demands. Noninvasive monitoring which was found to provide similar information to that of invasive monitoring, was used in the earliest period of time shortly after admission to the emergency department to provide objective physiologic criteria as therapeutic goals for each of the three major circulatory components: cardiac, pulmonary, and tissue perfusion functions. A clinical algorithm or branch-chain decision tree for high-risk surgical patients was developed from decision rules based on survivor and nonsurvivor patterns, outcome predictors, prospective controlled clinical trials of the oxygen delivery/oxygen consumption (DO2/VO2)